Low Observable Theory

Examine low observable concepts, the technology used in the production of stealth aircraft, and counter-stealth techniques. Part of the spectrum warfare learning series.

Enroll in ICFA122

About This Intelligence Community Online Course

In this self-paced, online course, you will delve into relevant aspects of low observable concepts, the technology used in the production of stealth aircraft, counter-stealth techniques and the implications to spectrum warfare—all critical knowledge areas for defense and intelligence analysts.

Learn about the active and passive detectable signatures used to find, fix, track, target, engage and assess stealth aircraft. You will also gain new knowledge on radar theory basics, take note of the radar equation used to determine probable detection ranges and describe how to measure an aircraft’s radar cross section. In addition, you will explore the role of a Serbian SA-3 crew and the poor NATO tactics that led to the F-117 shootdown and study current counter-stealth techniques. Lastly, we will compare the advantages and disadvantages to employing stealth aircraft.

What You Will Learn

  • Distinguish between active and passive signatures
  • Identify factors affecting an aircraft’s radar cross section signature
  • Describe radar cross-section signature reduction techniques
  • Identify counter-stealth techniques
  • Name the pros and cons of employing stealth aircraft

The course is part of the FedLearn spectrum warfare learning series.

Your Instructor

The course was developed by Robert Folker. Mr. Folker is a retired U.S. Air Force intelligence weapons instructor with more than 30 years of military experience in technological development for various military applications. He currently is a senior strategist and intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance consultant with PatchPlus Consulting.

Mr. Folker a senior subject matter expert on indications and warning, sensitive reconnaissance operations, ISR planning, sensor employment and numerous intelligence disciplines that span the range from unit-level to national-level organizations, cyber operations, U.S. and adversary weapon systems and transregional threats.

He is both a graduate of and former instructor at the USAF Weapons School and earned his Master of Science in Strategic Intelligence from the National Intelligence University.

Who Should Take This Online Course

This online course is designed for professionals who wish to learn more about (or gaining a refresher on) low observable theory and spectrum warfare —particularly, defense or intelligence analysts working in either Federal government agencies or government contractor companies.


None. However, it is highly recommended that you take the FedLearn online training course, Electromagnetic Fundamentals (ICFA118), prior to taking this course.

After completion, it is highly recommended to take the other course in the spectrum warfare learning series, Communications Basics (ICFA 120), to continue to advance your knowledge

Course Certificate

To achieve a course certificate of completion, you must score 80 percent or higher on graded lesson quizzes and a final exam.

Course Format

Self-paced, online training course

Course Pricing

Individual courses are $124.99 (per person).

Seat licenses to access the entire FedLearn Intelligence Community catalog are also available. Click here to learn more and purchase.

If you are interested in learning about special team rates for Federal government and government contractor organizations, email [email protected].

Continuing Education Unit Credits

This course provides 1 CEU.